Department of Pathology

Department of Pathology - Clinical Pathology Services

Department of Pathology
ArrowClinical Pathology Services
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Blood Transfusion Service (Blood Bank)

The Blood Bank plays an important role in determining what pre-transfusion testing is required and accurately identifying a transfusion component before issue. Compatibility testing must be performed for the transfusion of whole blood and all red cell components, while only ABO and Rh typing are required for the transfusion of platelet and plasma components.

Our laboratory provides compatibility testing using the Type and Screen or the conventional full cross-matching methods, at the choice of physicians and surgeons.

We also cater for specific needs of patients by providing Private Donor Service (where direct blood donations can be made to patients) and Autologous Transfusion Service (where a patient can reserve one’s own blood for use in scheduled surgeries within one month).

Hospital Blood Transfusion Service Committee
The Hospital Blood Transfusion Service Committee is a panel of physicians, surgeons, anaesthesiologists, haematologists, laboratory and nursing staff appointed to undertake the setting of policies and clinical protocols, the planning of service development, and the conducting of clinical audits. With expert advice from Hong Kong Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, we can ensure the excellence in service quality and upgrade it to meet international standards. Continuous education is emphasised through inviting experts to update our staff on recent advances in blood transfusion techniques and quality management.

Clinical Chemistry
Our state-of-the-art multi-purpose automated analysers, together with well-trained and highly qualified staff, enable accurate and efficient biochemical testing.

  • A cardiac marker NT-proBNP test was launched to facilitate the diagnosis of congestive heart failure and monitor heart failure therapy.
  • Troponin-T or Troponin-I together with CK-MB, enables prompt diagnosis of myocardial injuries.
  • Other new assays include apolipoproteins A and B, Lp(a) and a tumour marker CA 72.4.

  • The newly installed Architect ci8200 analyser enables both biochemistry tests and immunoassays to be performed on a single platform to maximise testing efficiency.
  • Our test menu has also been enriched by the acquirement of an Elecsys 2010.

Clinical Haematology
The Clinical Haematology Division provides sophisticated diagnostic haematology laboratory services to the Hospital.


  • An advanced automated cell counter with true five-part white cell differential and wide platelet detection range is employed for complete blood count. Blood smear review is undertaken for all samples.
  • Coagulation testing is performed by an automated coagulometer that can handle clotting-based, chromogenic as well as immunological assays.
  • New coagulation tests that are established include quantitative D-Dimer assay and thrombophilia screening.
  • Specialised tests for the investigation of anaemia, such as haemoglobin pattern by high performance liquid chromatography, iron study and G6PD assay are also carried out.

Clinical Pathologist Service
Our Clinical Pathologist is a specialist in haematology who supervises the microscopy of blood smears and provides interpretative reports on blood film, bone marrow aspirate, trephine biopsy, cytochemistry, haemoglobin pattern study and morphological examination of body fluids. Clinical consultation, performance of bone marrow biopsy and training of technical staff on blood cell morphology are also provided. Cooperation and consultation with Honorary Consultant Haematologists of the Hospital are available for the diagnosis and management of blood disorders.

Clinical Immunology
The diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and infection of HSV, Chlamydia, EBV, Mycoplasma, Parvovirus and Syphilis are provided, utilising techniques such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), Indirect Fluorescent Antibody (IFA), immuno-blotting and immunochromotography assays.

With the establishment of the Rheumatology Clinic, an arthritis panel is introduced and the detection of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) is implemented. Auto-antibodies against CCP are useful new diagnostic markers for rheumatoid arthritis with very high specificity.

The new Leica DMLB2TM fluorescence microscope and DC300FTM digital camera provide better resolution of images, which helps in the result interpretation of immuno-florescence assays.

The Dynex MRXTM automatic microplate reader allows more varieties of programme settings, curve fit options, reading combination and result storage for different types of new ELISA assays.

Clinical Microbiology     Our Doctors
A broad spectrum of testing services in aerobic/anaerobic bacteriology, mycobacteriology, parasitology and mycology are provided.

In addition to the isolation, identification and susceptibility testing of microbial pathogens, rapid detection for bacterial, cryptococcal, Influenza A and B antigens and Dengue virus antibodies are also available.

Rapid culture identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteria is performed by PCR method.

The Clinical Microbiology Division introduced Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) Mass Spectrometer in September 2012, which facilities bacterial identification and treatment planning.

Optimal Environment for Enhanced Safety
The Tuberculosis Laboratory is furnished with an anteroom in compliance with the WHO biosafety guideline. With the well-designed inward airflow, HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filter air exhaust and biological safety class II cabinet, the isolated Tuberculosis Laboratory provides a safe environment for tuberculosis culture and culture identification.

A new autoclave with a built-in safety lock mechanism has been installed to prevent accidents during high pressure and heat operations.

The replacement of new CO2 incubators, with the features of effective heat sterilisation cycle and HEPA filter airflow system, allows an excellent air quality inside the incubators.

Enhanced Accuracy & Efficiency
The implementation of a new version of ATB ExpressionTM bacterial identification and susceptibility testing system, which is installed with the latest Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines plus antifungal susceptibility test result interpretation, ensures the accuracy and efficiency of our performance.